Synthetic fibers , also known as synthetic fibres (in British English; see spelling differences) are fibres produced by humans by chemical synthesis, as opposed natural fibers directly made from living organisms such as plant fibers (like cotton) or fur of animals. They result from intensive research conducted by scientists in order to recreate natural animal and plant fibers. In general, synthetic fibers are made by extruding fiber-forming materials through spinnerets, forming the fiber like Aluminium extrusion. These are known as synthetic or synthetic fibers. The word “polymer” is derived from the Greek suffix “poly” that means “many” and the suffix “mer” meaning “single elements”. (Note: each single piece of polymer is called”a monomer).
The first synthetic fiber was glass. Joseph Swan invented one of the first artificial fibers around 1880 which is now called semi synthetic based on the specific usage. His fiber was drawn from a cellulose liquid formed by chemically modifying the tree bark’s fiber. The synthetic fiber produced through this process was chemically identical in the potential uses it could have to the carbon filament Swan invented to power the incandescent bulb, however, Swan soon realized that the possibility of using the filament to revolutionize manufacturing of textiles. In 1885, he debuted fabrics he had manufactured from synthesized material during the International Inventions Exhibition in London.
This next move was undertaken by Hilaire de Chardonnet Hilaire de Chardonnet, the French engineer and industrialist, who invented the first artificial silk, which he called “Chardonnet silk”. In the 1870s, Chardonnet was working together with Louis Pasteur on a remedy to the epidemic killing French silkworms. Inability to clean up a spill in the darkroom resulted in Chardonnet’s discovery nitrocellulose as a potential replacement for silk. Recognizing the importance of such an innovation, Chardonnet began to develop his new product, which presented at the Paris Exhibition of 1889. Chardonnet’s product was extremely flammable, and subsequently substituted with other, more stable materials.